After their victory in the heroic battle in the Balearic Islands in 1104, the Pisan dominion in the Tirreno Sea did not please the Genovesi whatsoever, who tried to attack Elba for the whole of the XII century.
During the Pisan dominion in Elba work, and the susequent exportation, in the iron mines and granite quarries started again. Works like Santo Stefano's Church in Bagnaia, or San Michele's apse in Capoliveri, or Saint Peter and Paul's Church in San Piero in Campo, and many others, date back to this prosperous period.
At the end of the 14th century the Pisans gave way to the Appiani dominion, who came from Piombino, Pianosa and Montecristo. Although things weren't always easy for them, and they alternated politically neutral periods with difficult ones, they remained on the island util the middle of the VI century. During this period the Genovesi and the Saracen pirates tried to invade. (They attacked both the Island of Gorgona, forcing the Certosini Monks to flee, and the Island of Gorgona, forcing the inhabitants to flee).
During this period the fortifications were kept under strict control, thus allowing a continuity of government on the island; any damaged fortresses were repaired and the Giogo Fortress near Rio was built. In 1501, Duke Valentino conquered the island and interrupted the Appiani dominion for two years, but they had a strong union with the kingdom of Naples and were able to get it back.The years between 1500 and 1538 were a time of sea danger, above all on behalf of cruel, Turkish pirates, lead by the terrible Khayr al-Din, the famous Barbarossa, and his elder brother Aruj.
Rio and Grassera were looted to the point of all their inhabitants fleeing, and some prisoners were deported to Tunisi, to be freed in 1535 by one of Carlo V's expeditions. While the French are joining forces with the Moors, Cosimo de' Medici is becoming more and more interested in the tiny state of Piombino and in Elba, which he looked upon as outposts for conquering the Mediterranean. The news that Barbarossa, in alliance with France, was planning an expedition from Costantinopoli to the Tirreno Sea gave the Florentines the chance to send reinforcements to the state of Piombino.
In July 1544 Barbarossa, after negotiations with the Appiani concerning the liberation of a Turkish boy in prison, laid the entire island waste, from Ferraja (Portoferraio) to Capoliveri and the fortress in Luceri, holding back only when he got to the impregnable Volterraio castle where some of the locals had taken refuge.
This massacre convinced the Appiani to free the boy in exchange for this cruel pirate's departure. Since Cosimo de' Medici was considerably well off, Carlo V had no difficulty in entrusting him with the State of Piobino and Elba despite the friendship between the Appiani and the Spaniards.
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